Skip to main content

Full text of "Casio CZ-5000 Quick Start Guide"

See other formats


RASTER 




SUMMARY SUM ARIO 

The quick approach to sound synthesis 
Una rapida aproximacion a la sintesis sonora 




This booklet explains the operation of the Casio CZ- 
5000 from a different viewpoint than the Operation 
Manual. 

It was written with people in mind who want to play 
their new instrument right away, who are less 
interested in theory and more in practical tips for 
creating new sounds. 

For those who have no experience with synthesizers at 
all and are using one for the first time, the appendix 

Synthesizer Sound Seminar" is recommended 
reading. 



Contents 



Part 1 First, Let's Create Some Sounds! 1 

Part 2 CZ-5000 Sound Synthesis 6 

Part 3 Tips for Sound Synthesis— Effective Techniques io 

Part 4 Using the Sequencer 15 

Appendix "The Synthesizer Sound Seminar" 18 



(3) 



Use 

timb 

next 

mem 

namt 

timb 



pAtftt 



First, Let's Create Some Sounds! 



64 Sample Sounds 



D 



Use the following procedure to listen to the sample sounds. 



X^^^^r^S^ With *«■** » * k <^ -pHfier and speakers, or ear- 



(1) Press the power switch to turn the 
instrument ON. 

Immediately after power is turned ON the syn- 
thesizer will be in the NORMAL mode and BRASS 
ENS. 1 (A-l in the Programmer Section) will be 
selected automatically. Indicators will be lit above 
preset bank A and voice selector 1, while the 
LCD will appear as shown below. 



(2) Playing the 32 preset voices. 

Use the voice selectors (1-8) for the first eight 
timbres, and then press preset bank key B for the 
next eight timbres. Repeat this procedure for each 
preset bank key (A-D). The LCD will show the 
name of each timbre selected, so sample each 
timbre while confirming its name on the LCD. 



(3) Playing the 32 memory voices. 

Use the voice selectors (1-8) for the first eight 
timbres, and then press memory bank key B for the 
next eight timbres. Repeat this procedure for each 
memory bank key (A-D). The LCD will show the 
name of each timbre selected, so sample each 
timbre while confirming its name on the LCD 



Uoo'ra«S 1iv! r Memorytankk " 



-PRESET 1 t MEMORY 1 



- Indicator 



-&r 



EB F1-FF1 



■-Indicator 



-Voice selectors - 



! :t: 



~ !-: (-i i-. .- 



fl-1 

•IS.i 



Present bank 
(D Select 



keys (A-D) 
a preset bank 




ect a timbre 



Memory bank keys (A-D) | 

\J> Select a memory bank ! 
Voice selectors (1-3) 



— J^\ 




~ t Preset Voices and Memory Voices> 



32 : preset and 32 memory voices are preprogrammed into the CZ-5000. Any one of these 64 timbre, 
can be selected using the keys in the Programmer Section. 6S 

The 32 timbres programmed into the memory bank are those included in the "DATA BOOK" Newlv 
created timbres (by changing data using the Parameter Section) can be stored in memory erasing^ 
previous contents and recording the new data in its place. casing the 



Preset Voice Table 



i:Sy^ 



BRASS ENSEMBLE 1 



STRING ENSEMBLE 1 



SYNTH. BRASS 



JAZZ ORGAN 



WHISTLE* 



FAT BASS 



VIBRAPHONE 



SYNTH. DRUMS 



HUMAN VOICE 



STRING ENSEMBLE 2 



ELEC. PIANO 



FLUTE* 



* indicates 16-note polyphonic (1DCO). 
Others are 8-note polyphonic (2DCO)". 



BRASS ENSEMBLE 2 



SYNTH. STRINGS 



ACCORDION 



SYNTH. BASS 



CRISPY XYLOPHONE 



STEEL DRUM 



FAIRYTALE 



BLUES HARMONICA 



ELEC. GUITAR 

SYNTH. GLOCKENSPIEL" 

SYNTH. PERCUSSION 



CARILLON 



TRUMPET 



VIOLIN* 



FANTASTIC ORGAN 



DOUBLE REED 



METALLIC SOUND 



CARIMBA 



CONGA 



TYPHOON SOUND 



Altering the sample voices 



■ : Dr:^ 



i r rH to f ne ,: lements to r thesize a new sound right fr ° m *« ^^z^z izs ^ Vr S 

aauaSy Sort § * ^ "^ t0 ^ " ^ * Under5tand h ™ Sound *"*«* wSfthe CZ 5000 



SSjSllSS!^^ I" 1 - **«<¥. !« *• variOMs nun*™ »ai U e S IhS 1g^ in'SISSf " 



^Stf^tf 1 



(3) 



Examp,c: mjez^k B " " Syn,h - Brais " into an ~* " orie " ui b - s " — »- "»^ 

(1) Select the preset tone B-1 "Synth. Brass". 

-CZD- 

(2) Raise the range one octave. 

©Press the OCTAVE key. 

^The display shown on the right will appear on the 

LCD. [This indicates that the octave setting for SYNTH 

BRASS is currently "RANGE = 0".] 



OCTAVE 



*^> 



OCTAVE 
GE=+8 



Cursor 

* The cursor is the mark that indicates the posi- 
tion at which a value can be changed. 



B 
tr 
L 
2 
P< 
P 
ti 
9' 



•©• 




key such as VIBRATO, WAVE FORM ENV „ *. 

' displayed in the same manner as shown fo'r the ^ reSPeCt ' Ve Va,Ue S6t for 

- returns the LCD to the previous display ™* " tting above - 




©Press the .gj, key once. 

■» I he value above the cursor changes to "+i - a 

^ Pitch range is thus shifted up by^eJtLe^ 



^Z9MpaRe7recalTk^7 

PAR n E/RECAn^ thC ° Perati0n descrf bed above in f 2 . ^ , h ■ „- 
I ( u k6y Wi " l! S ht indicating thT "IV' 1 ' ' * e ' nd,cator ^ove the COM- 

example, the pitch range of the tone "Synth BraJ'T V° -^ been a,tered - ('" our 
now press the COMPARE/RECALL kev thl" T ^ bee " raised b V one octave ) If you 
hear t he origina , ( ' ^ALL key th .nd.cator wilf go out and you will be able to 

the key to compare the sounds before and it 7 ° Ur "* ** Synth - Brass tone) Press 
Pressing a key on the keyboard, yo ' a n is *" ^T^^ ua " n ^»^«ton and s/mp" 
ong.nal sound any time. St6n t0 the som <i You are altering as well as the 

Note: Press the COMPARE 'RECALL k 

the original. This will return to thVp^lnv^.t^r''" 8 ^ altered sound *<* 
and allow further modifications V a ' tered S0Und Ondicator will light) 




{3) £z::£;^ pe to achieve a wavering effect ^ - «■* 

«rlopea«..RATE = 99»and»LEVEL = 3S» 

The cursor is positioned under the RATE vaiue.] 



'PITCH STEP1 



5^SX^S55^£-r*- 




RHTE=99 ' LEUF' =7, 



Cursor 




IPITCHSTFP? 
\ |RhTE=6S LEUEI 





LEVEL .33 for s K p , T nd &£ ." "lEVEL^ V* 
2, producing the envelnn ch„ DO ; Ldvtt - - tor Step 

parameters indicate the '^T 0n , the n ' §ht - The "rate" 
Parameters show £ Z^ofr^''. Whi,e the " level " 
tive steps. The maxL.m I enVe '° pe f °r the respec- 

99 whi£ the minium vl^'isV" ^ °' *«° P ™«^ « 
- See page 15 ^ 19 of the Operation Manual for details. 



First step 
(Step 1) 




'3> 



® Press the ^ key to set the value to 50 

key to increase it again. aecreased beyond the desired point, simply press the L §& 




m 



SAVE LOAO 
VALUE- 



PITCH STEP2 END 
RF)TE=5£1 LEUEL=80 



The operation explained in ® changes the rate (slope) of 
^ Sne righT *° Pr ° dudng ^ pitch envelo P e illustrated 



* The wavering effect, which is determined by the angle of 
the slope, w.ll now be stronger due to the gentler slope 
of the envelope (indicated by the shaded section). 




• ^"Sf^w^cw^&^s 



(4) Change the DETUNE value to add a perfect fifth harmony. 

©Press the detune key. 

*The LCD will show the display on the right. 

® Press the ® key to move the cursor to the position below 
the NOTE value. 

©Press the L g£,key to change the NOTE value from 00 to 07. 




DETUNE ( + ) Cir:T=a 
NOTE=80 FINE=96 



DETUNE ( + ) OCT^l 
N0TE=@Q FINE=06 



NOTE : A perfect fifth is the note 



DETUNE ( + > nr:T=fi 
NOTE=07 FINE=06 



seven semitones above the root 



(basic note). 

* Play something on the keyboard to listen to the new tone, a brass sound with an oriental feeling 

(5) Store the sound in MEMORY D-5. 



to it 



©Set the PROTECT switch on the back of the synthesizer 
to OFF. 

® Keep the WRITE key depressed until the operation 
of step (4) is completed. 

■►The LCD will show the display on the right 

All indicators in the Programmer section except the 
COMPARE/RECALL indicator will go out 



•®« 



PROTECT 

OFF ON 



WRITE 
SELECT MEMORY 




+ 



:ause the 

; the S3 
' Ule LOAD 



® Press the D key in the memory bank. 
The indicator will light. 

®H. reS .V£ ice SeieCt0r key 5 - When " 0K " spears on 
be^eased 1 " 6 WR ' TE ^ ^ VOiCe Se,e "° r ke V «" 



WRITE 
OK 




* The 6 Tt&^T^^ canT't "T "* """ Pr ° CedUre «""* P-'-'V- 

RAM cartridge. See ^BRE^^^^^^^^!^^^ tape or an optiona, 



. After 
3r will 



it 



•®- 



ptfSi 



CZ-5000 Sound Synthesis 



Block Structure of the CZ-5000 m 
(as compared to an Analog Synthesizer) 



The fascinating thing about the CZ-5000 is not only its realistic, clear sound, but also the simplicity of sound 
creation it offers. The CZ-5000 eliminates one of the major drawbacks of previous digital synthesizers, namely 
that it was extremely difficult to actually synthesize the kind of sound one had in mind. You can now easily 
create any sound you want as you please. The secret behind this ability is that the CZ-5000 has inherited 
the basic easy-to-understand structure of sound synthesis from the analog synthesizer. In other words, the 
CZ-5000 combines the superior sound quality of a digital synthesizer with the easy-to-understand principles 
of sound synthesis offered by analog instruments. 

In the following, we will explain the block structure of the CZ-5000 while comparing it to that of an analog 
synthesizer. 

Note: To those of you who have never used synthesizers before, we stronly recommend reading the 
appendix "Synthesizer Sound Seminar" first. 



Analog Synthesizer 



>< 



Digital Synthesizer - CZ-5000 



> 



*This is the basic general structure of analog "There are two blocks such as the one enclosed by 
synthesizers. Details will differ according to the dotted line, 

make and model. 



vco 

(Pitch) 


4 


VCF 
(Timbre) 


4 


VCA 
(Volume) 



LF0 



EG 




analog sound signals 
analog control signals 



* digital sound signals 
-* digital control signals 



Looking at the above diagram, it is evident that the CZ-5000 has practically the same block structure as analog 
synthesizers. 

• DCO (Digital Controlled Oscillator) 

- A digital circuit that corresponds to the VCO (Voltage Controlled Oscillator) of an analog synthesizer, 
and determines the pitch and the basic wave form* of a sound. 

• The CZ-series offers about 10 times as many basic wave forms as a normal analog synthesizer. 

• DCW (Digital Controlled Wave) 

- A digital circuit that corresponds to the VCF (Voltage Controlled Filter) of an analog synthesizer, 
and controls the timbre of a sound. 

• DCA (Digital Controlled Amplifier) 

- A digital circuit that corresponds to the VCA (Voltage Controlled Amplifier) of an analog synthesizer, 
and controls the volume of a sound. 

• DEG (Digital Envelope Generator) 

- Corresponds to the EG (Envelope Generator) of an analog synthesizer, and controls the change ot 
pitch, timbre and volume over time according to a maximum of 1 6 parameters. 

•©• 



Note 



The C 
on ea^ 
For e 
an eve 
noise 
inCZ 




: 



• DLFO (Digital Low Frequency Oscillator) 

- A circuit that corresponds to the LFO (Low Frequency Oscillator) of an analog synthesizer, and 
generates low frequency waves for vibrato effects. 

This shows how easy it is to view the various blocks of the CZ-5000 along the lines of analog synthesizers, 
meaning that it is possible to create totally new sounds without having to learn any new kind of synthesis. 
Note that the CZ-5000 offers a dual line systems consisting of the blocks shown above, resulting in the block 
structure shown beiow. 



thp 



Detune and Line Select 



The CZ-5000 has a dual line structure (Line JJ and Line 21): 




After^ sounds have been created on Line 3] and/or [2 , pitch differences can be obtained with the Detune 
function and line outputs can be designated with Line Select. 



• Detune 



• Line Select 



Note 1 : 



Note 2: 



. Determines the pitch difference between Line 5] and Line [2] - (Note 1 ) 
The pitch difference can be designated in units of one octave, one semitone or 1/60 
semitone. It is also possible to designate whether the pitch is raised H or lowered (-). 

Determines which lines are output or which lines are combined. (Note 2! 

Q] : Outputs Line Q] only. 

\2\ : Outputs Line g! only. 

[Tj + 23 ' Line 5] is output together with detuned Line \2\ . 

i Jj + CH : Line :T| is output together with detuned Line Q] . 

* 1] and 21 indicate detuned tines. 

When T + U is designated with Line Select, Line U is output together with detuned Line 3] (Line 
S with an altered pitch). In other words, setting a Detune value will detune Line U when 31+2] 
is designated and Line 3] when U + D is designated. 

When j] or_2: have been designated with Line Select, the synthesizer is :6-note polyphonic. When 
U + X or i + U have been designated, it is 8-note polyphonic. 



The Detune and Line Select functions let you create a variety of effects by combining the different sounds 
on each line or detuned and normal-pitch tones for a fatter, spacier sound, or to obtain various naunces. 
For example, by combining a normal-pitch string tone with a slightiv detuned string tone, you can achieve 
an even more realistic sound. Another interesting example is the combination of an organ tone with key click 
noise for a funky jazz organ sound. As you can see, the Detune and Line Select functions plav important parts 
in CZ-5000 sound synthesis. 



of 



Key Relationship and Operation 



To get an idea about the relationship among the various keys, first look at the following diagram: 



-line: 







Dc l DCWl nri i 




u l r u 








(Pi 


tc 


h) 


h 


(Tim 


bre) 


*j 


(Voiume) ; 




















1 

1 










: v 


IBRATC 


) 




WAVE 
FORM 




ENV 


KEY 
FOLLOW 


ENV 


KEY 
FOLLOW 


ENV ; 




0CW2 
(Timbre) 



KEY 



FOLLOW 
LINE 2 



ENV 



KEY ENV 

FOLLOW " ^ 



-MZ *CZH4- 



...DCA2 _ 
(Volume) 



/ 



DETUNE LINE 

SELECT 



? 
Whe 



Compare this diagram with the one on page 16. The DEG for each block is indicated by the ENV (envelope) 

keys for DCO 1, DCW 1, etc. Also, OCTAVE controls both DCO 1 and DCO 2. The kev layout more or 

less corresponds to the block structure shown in the diagram on page 16. 

There are 16 keys in all. With the exception of the LINE SELECT key on the extreme right all other 15 

keys cause the values set for the respective blocks to be displayed on the LCD when pressed. These 15 kevs 

are called parameter keys. 

CZ-5000 sound synthesis is accomplished by displaying the values for the blocks you want to alter on the 

LCD by pressing the respective key and then altering the displayed values with the CURSOR kevs ( r«] and 

B ), and the VALUE keys ( s ^ and <& ). ' l 



T 



The , 
Soun 

forth 



(Basic Procedure for Sound Synthesis^ ) 

* Procedure for altering sample sounds. 

riF 



Select the timbre you want to use as the basis for 
your sound from among the sample sounds (preset 
and memory voices). 



&- 



Press the respective parameter key to display the 
values for the block you wish to change on the 
LCD. 



Operation Example j 
in Parti 



(D 



(2) 
(3) 
(4) 



- J 



•d> 



ivelope) 
nore or 

r her 15 
<evs 

jn the 
3 and 




When you want to alter more than one block, repeat steps Tand J . 

rfe- 






S^select.;^^ 



Vp '~r r rJ?.#f-^ 




The settings for RING and NOISE are performed in 7 ~T. 



(2)-@ 

(3) - ® @ 

(4) - @ (D 



*This operation is not ex- 
plained in Part 1 since the 
output line is not changed 
in the example. 



(5)-©®®. 



The notations to the right of the diagram refer to procedures explained in Part 1: "First, Let's Create Some 
Sounds! See the respective sections for detailed operational procedures. Refer to the Operation Manual 
for the meanings of the settings for each block. 



•CD- 



ptf*I2. 



Sound Synthesis Tips 



Sound Synthesis Tips 



(1) Choosing the Waveform 

The waveform is one of the most important factors which determine a sound. The first step to successful 
sound synthesis is therefore to understand the characteristics of the various waveforms. 

The following table shows the major characteristics of each wave form preset on the CZ-5000 synthesizers. 
(Select preset tone No. 1 "Brass Ens 1 " and switch to the waveforms indicated below.) 



Waveform 


Characteristic 



1 . Saw-tooth 



A bright timbre suited to strings and brass sounds. 



2. Square 



A simple timbre suitable for woodwinds such as clarinet and 
oboe. 



3. Pulse 



A A 


A sharp timbre for funky sounds. 


4. Double sine 

: AA\AT\ 


A shrill, bright timbre. 


5. Saw pulse 


A brassy, metallic timbre. 



6. Resonance I 



A funky timbre with characteristics depending on the WAVE 
ENVELOPE setting. 



7. Resonance El 



A funky timbre with characteristics depending on the WAVE 
ENVELOPE setting. 



8. Resonance III 



A funky timbre with characteristics depending on the WAVE 
ENVELOPE setting. 



Selecting any one of the waveforms 1 to 5 and setting the wave envelope level set to outputs a sine wave. 
This technique is used to output sine waves when necessary. 



* As already noted, the DCO waveform setting determines the basic waveform. With the CZoOOO, this 
basic waveform actually varies over time, controlled by the wave envelope (DCW). (With the PD sound 
source, the variation is between a sine wave and the basic wave. See "PD Sound Source and Waveform 
Variation" on page 14). 



■;i0'< 




(2) Using the DCO Envelope Generator (Pitch Envelope) 

PPercussive attack using the pitch envelope 

Setting a fast attack (rise) and decay (drop) time for the 
pitch envelope creates a sound with a percussive attack. 
Note, however, that this percussive attack will not be 
audible if the attack of the DCA envelope is too slow. 




D Auto glide effect using the pitch envelope 

First, the pitch envelope is set so that it rises very quickly 

to a point just beiow one octave in Step 1. The Step 1 rate 

of the DCA envelope is set to about 60 so that the first 

step of the pitch envelope cannot be heard. 

The second step of the pitch envelope is set so that the 

envelope slowly approaches the one octave (L = 66) pitch 

and then a sustain point is specified. 

This setting produce an auto glide effect causing the pitch 

to slowly rise when a key is pressed. 




SUSTAIN 
POINT 



-MP ENVELOPE 



00, END POINT 



'3> Using the pitch envelope to produce a guitar sound with distortion and picking effects 

Causing the pitch to oscillate rapidly within a one-octave 

range produces a distorted guitar sound with picking i.=66 ; . = se '- = 66 l* = 66 

effects. 

R. = 85/\R a = 85/\R, = 85/\R 8 = 85/\R 8 = 85 



PITCH 
ENVELOPE 




END POINT 



(3) Using the DCW Envelope Generator (Wave Envelope) 

I Wah-wah sound 

Select any of the resonance wave forms (I— III). 

By setting the wave envelope as shown below, a wah-wah effect can be achieved. 




~ C PD Sound Source and Waveform Variation *) - 



The CZ-5000 features a PD sound source that produces a variety of waves by controlling the speed 
at which a sine wave is read from ROM. (See User's Manual for details.) In actual practice, the wave 
is altered over time between the basic waveform and a sine waveform in accordance with the envelope 
formed with the ECW envelope generator. (Fig. 1) 

i\./\. r\ 



WAVEFORM 1 



NSN 



DCW ENVELOPE 




WAVEFORM 7 (RESONANCE II) 



OCW ENVELOPE 




(D Fixed timbre organ 

As can be seen in the figure, fixing the wave envelope at a constant level produces a specific 
waveform irregardless of time (like an organ). 



A .1 
N Iaa; A 



■ SUSTAIN POINT 



R ? -00. L 7 -00. END POINT 



(4) Using the DCA Envelope Generator (Amp Envelope) 
Echo effect 



(5) Us 




Key SUSTAIN 

on POINT 



A double echo effect can be obtained when a key is 
released. 



•©• 



® Piano-like envelope with sudden decay 

it is released ^ *' S ° Und Wl " CXpand as ,on S » *e key is pressed and decay suddenly when 




_a Brass wind instruments with a tonguing effect 
Setting the attack of the envelope as shown below pro- 
duces the kind of tonguing effect typical of brass wind 

instruments. 




(5) Using key follow 

ssir,? SdScet;h thf ^cr:;;^ t;^ an , d r> key fo,,ow a,s ° prod - **>* - *e 

nigher the pitch, the rounder the ^ ^ tSthEdeciy*" ^ "' * '^ "^ ^ eXamP ' e ' *' 

CDDCW Key Follow 

The higher the pitch the lower the timbre modulation f:>.-t„r a • 

-s gradually formed. The higher the range n^^^Z' £™ " " 3PPr ° aChed ' $ ° * ^ ^ 

X DCA Key Follow 

» oe^I fWThf „ ig Z rue ^ S'X'S i " t tte h a ""> «"'«'»'«■ the enve.oped is reduced o.ec finte, 
>h« plucked string effect of theti.at 1„d "'"„„ 8 '" ,er *' effat - ™ S *"""! " "^ effective in producing 



i|« 



(6) Effective Use of the Detune Function 

Select Electric Piano B-3 and set the Detune parameters as follows. 



+/- 


Octave 


Note 


Fine 


Effect 


— 


2 


00 


00 


Fatter sound. 




1 


00 


00 


Fatter sound. 


-~+ 





00 


01^07 


Ensemble, Particularly effective in combinationwith Line Select 
setting \T\ + [rj . 


~i~ 


1 


00 


00-07 


Fatter sound. Accentuates harmonic one octave above basic 
pitch. 


+ 


1 


07 


00 


Accentuates third harmonic. Well suited to brass and organ 
sounds. 


1 + 


n 


00 


00-07 


Accentuates harmonics two octaves above basic pitch. Suited 
to electric piano sounds and electric organ sounds. 


1 + 


2 


03 


48 


Accentuates fifth harmonic. (Sound of hitting wood) 


+ 


2 


09 


36 


Accentuates sixth harmonic. 


; + 


. 3 


00 


00 


Accentuates seventh harmonic. 


\ + 


*•> 


00 


00 


Accentuates harmonic three octaves above basic picth. 


I + 


: ^ 


02 


00 


Accentuates ninth harmonic. 


- 


3 


03 


48 


Accentuates tenth harmonic. 


+■ 


3 


05 


30 


; Accentuates eleventh harmonic. 


- 


i 

3 


07 


00 


Accentuates twelfth harmonic. (Sound of hitting glass) 


! + 


3 


08 


24 


Accentuates thirteenth harmonic. 


•f 


3 


09 


36 


Accentuates fourteenth harmonic. 


+ 


3 


10 


54 


Accentuates fifteenth harmonic. (Metallic sound) 




B. 



Note: The values for the FINE setting are included as examples and do not have to be followed precisely. 



(7) Modulation 

I" Ring Modulation 

Turning ring modulation ON while the line select is set to Q] + 33 (or H+ H ), multiplies line Q] by 

33 (or (2), and a timbre modulated by line 33 (or gj) is UNE rjj . ► 

produced. The ring modulated tone includes the pitch of 
line 3] and pitches not included in line 33 for \2\ ) (non- 
integral multiples) for a metallic sound, such as bell. 



line 



L1NE33- 

or 
LINE23 



1 Noise Modulation P _ n ^ /f _^ r _, J -uu-u 

Turning noise modulation ON while the line select is set to ffl + 33 (or [T] + (2 ) produces a timbre in whtch 

5] (or gj ) is modulated by noise. This is effective for pro- ^ ^^ ^ 

ducing wind or wave effects. 



LINE 3] - 
or 

LINES 



Noise 

modulation 

circuit 



I 

NOISE 



><H" 






M* 



Using The Sequencer 



iVVhat is a Sequencer? 






•*^r^.i 



The power of a computer lies in its ability to store volumes of data. There are many ways that music can be 
represented as data, but the most popular is sheet music. 

The SEQUENCER makes it possible to input musical notes as they appear on the sheet music as data. The 
stored piece can then be played back automatically, thus providing vast potential for new types of musical 
creativity. Actually, the sequencer is a type of recorder. 



* THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A SEQUENCER AND A TAPE RECORDER 

A. Manual Recording for Non-Musicians 

The concept that musical instruments are only for musicians is a thing of the past thanks to modern elec- 
tronics. With conventional tape recorders, considerable skill was required to make recordings of one's own 
music if any degree of success was desired. 

The sequencer of the CZ-5000 makes it possible for beginners who possess basic music reading skills to input 
note data to form complete tunes for playback. 



B. Easy Automatic Playback Tempo Changes 

With standard tape recorders it is impossible to control tape speed, so the tempo of recorded pieces cannot 

be changed. (Even tape players capable of variable speed cannot maintain the same pitch when speed is 

changed.) 

The sequencer, on the other hand, provides full control over tempo. This means that the notes input very 

slowly on the keyboard can be sped up to make the finished product sound like your fingers were literally 

flying over the keys. 



C. Easy Timbre Changes After Recording 

Once you record a piano/violin duet on a tape, it is impossible to play it back as anything besides a piano/ 
violin duet. 

If the piano and violin parts are separately recorded in the sequencer of the CZ-5000, the violin can easily 
be changed to a flute or the piano to a guitar. After recording an ensemble with a variety of timbres, you 
can freely change any part that does not sound quite right to just the timbre you want. 



•OS- 



Real Time and Manual Recording 






Two different data input methods can be used with the sequencer of the CZ-5000. 

a. Real time recording (Same as tape recorder) 
Recording of data as it is input using the keyboard. 

b. Manuai recording (Only possible with sequencer) 
Note-by-note input as it is written on the sheet music. 



Skilled keyboard players will usually use real time recording, but manual recording can come in handy when 

inputting rhythm patterns that call for precise timing. 

The note capacity in real time recording is 3,500, while that for manual recording 7,000. 



Recording Tracks 



It is impossible to do any actual recording unless you know something about recording tracks. Visualizing 
a cassette tape will help in grasping the concepts explained here. 





Side A 



Side B 



As illustrated in the diagram, a stereo cassette tape is divided into four sections. Each of these sections is 
called a track (or channel). 

Tracks are individual, independent recording areas, so if only TRACK ©in the above illustration is played 
back, monophonic output of the side A right channel will occur. 



■<«>« 



'Zing 



As with a stereo cassette tape, the tracks of the sequencer of the CZ-5000 are capable of independent data 
storage. Usually, each component (melody, bass, chords, rhythm, etc.) that makes up the piece being recorded 
LK'^TpIr^? track l 1 For exam P le ' the bass «n be input to TRACK 1, the chords to TRACK 2 the 

Se e wi* a U otSl 3 / et " Th6n ' P ' aying baCk a " ° f thE «** Wi " -tomaticaHy result in a piece that is com 
piete with all of the component parts. 

The sequencer of the CZ-5000 is equipped with 8 tracks, and each is fully capable of handling melody bass 
or chords, but data input for real time recording is different from that of manual recording 
Let s say we want to achieve the following arrangement: 

Melody 2 notes 

Bass 1 note 

Chord 4 notes 



A. REALTIME RECORDING 



^Track 



V^^PQLV value - %■;%[ Contents 



Track I 



Track 2 



Track 3 



H ' 



Melody 

Bass 

Chord 



Total 



MANUAL RECORDING 




As a quick comparison of A and B shows, the POLY value for each can be any number (as long as the cu- 
mulat.ve total is less than 8) in A, while in B, the POLY value is limited to 1. This can most clearly be seen in 
the fact that all of the notes required for chords are input in TRACK 3 of real time recording, while TRACK 
4 through 7 are required in manual recording. Whichever recording method is used, the result is 7-note poly- 
phonic. 



gMam^l^ingl^ecolijgai^KII^^^ 




It sometimes happens that once input of note data is complete the piece needs a little polishing to make 
it sound the way we want. For example, we may wish to make the melody, bass and chords to playback at 
different volume levels to make the melody stand out and the chords to become more subdued Or we may 
even wish to change the timbre from that originally input for better effect. 

The track check function if the CZ-5000 handles this type of recorded data manipulation. The timbre, volume 
and effects contained in each track can be changed freely to allow the player to find the best possible com- 
bination. 



•'E>« 



"The Synthesizer Sound Seminar" 



Sound 



Every day, we hear a great variety of sounds. Voices, the noise of car engines, doors opening and closing, 

footsteps, Vain ... and music. In other words, we live our lives surrounded by sound. We can't see sound, 

so how can we describe it? 

Physics tells us that "Sound is vibration". Taking the sound of a bel! as an example, we will try to pursue 

the basics of sound as it is produced and as it is heard. 

When kinetic (motive) energy is applied to a beil with a bei! hammer as shown in figure 1, a "deformation" 

of the beli occurs causing energy to work trying to restore the bell to its original state. A periodic repetition 

of deformation and restoration commences. This is called vibration. 

This vibration causes pressure changes in the air. These are called compressional waves. They are similar 

to the ripples that occurs when a stone is thrown into water. 

These compressional waves are transmitted to the human ear where they cause the eardrum to vibrate. These 

vibrations are picked up by nerves so we hear them as "sound". If the vibrating body differs, so will the 

vibrations, meaning that we also hear a different kind of sound. Outer space, where there is no air, is a world 

altogether without sound. 



±4 




Vibrational 
energy 



Air 



(Eardrum) 



))))))))))))))))))))))))))))W 

Compressiona! waves 



(fig- 1) 



Remember} - 



Sound is vibration of the air. 



ti Wave Forms 



Seeing Sounds With Our Eyes 

As explained above, sounds cannot actually be seen since they are vibrations of the air. However, you will 
often hear expressions such as "the wave form is different" or "this is almost a pure sine wave" concerning 
sounds. What is meant by "sound waves"? 



Condensed 
Pressure changes (high atmospheric pressure 



.■*£ 



))))) ) )))))))) )))))))))» 



lL 



£t 



dense | dense 

non-dense 



f dense 
non-dense 



Rarefied 

(low atmospheric 

pressure) 




Time 



-1 cvcle 



Let's consider the mechanism of a microphone which is used as a means for picking up sound. A microphone 
converts sound into electrical signals which can be then transmitted to an amplifier and speakers. As shown 
in the illustration, these electrical signals are simple conversions of the vibrations of the air (the changes 
in atmospheric pressure) into electrical © and . When these changes are presented graphically, they 
can be interpreted as "wave and displays then as waveforms on a television screen. If we use this kind of a 
device, we can see sounds with our own eyes. 

What we see are "waveforms". These waveforms differ greatly according to the sound and have various charac- 
teristics. These points will be explained later on in the Appendix. 



"IS" 




Remember^ )- 



lf sounds are converted into electrical signals, they 
be made visible as waveforms. 



can 




Oscillosope 



ci Three Basic Elements of Sound 



r!kin7abour "sound " *"* *" *"* can be Seen by * e eye » wavefor ™" But we have been 

andToVsou d s o? jri -'" & T , " P -° n ° W W '' th ° Ut »*"* int ° "^deration that there are high sou ds 
v,l v J J ■ UndS and qmet sounds - mellow soun * and sharp sounds that is to a IZeTr 

"o uL ' : d n tr Cn I" P f rCS,Ve ^ ^"""V- '" ^erai, sounds can P be ciassified accor ing to" pff 

ar V e derrJn n e d d bv t^ tnrle ba^ tmen^ ' *" "^ ** ^ ° f S ° Und "- '" <*" ^ -"* 



I — ^Remember ") - 



The "three basic elements of sound" are "pitch", "volume" and "tone quality". 



We can now have a look at how these three basic elements are connected with the various waveforms. 



3 Pitch 



The "first basic element of sound"- 






flilBIflllffiffltf! 



■* Low sounds 

(low register) 



mrni 



Few waves 



High sounds- 
(high register) 



Many waves 



1 ■'] 9; • 



The number of waves is actually the number of the vibrations causing the sound. For example, if we are 
listening to a violin, it would be the number of vibrations of the strings within a certain period of time. The 
higher the sound the larger the number of vibrations per time unit; the lower the sound the smaller the num- 
ber. The number of vibrations within the space of one second is generally called the frequency and expressed 
in units called Hz (Hertz). 100 Hz indicates that vibrations occur at the frequency of 100 times per second 
The larger the number of Hertz, the higher the sound. Also note that doubling the frequency of a sound 
will raise it by one octave, so we can say that frequency and pitch are related logarithmically. 
The range of frequencies that can be heard by the human ear depends on the individual but is generally con- 
sidered to be in the approximate range of 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz. 



Is 



442Hz -&- 884Hz 



~TJ- 



-221Hz 



Remember?)- 



The pitch of a sound depends on the number of waves per time unit (the vibration frequency) 
and becomes higher as the frequency increases. 



3 Sound Volume 



-The "second basic element of sound" 



If you hit a piano key forcefully, the sound will be loud. If you hit it softly, the sound will be soft. When 
viewed on an oscilloscope, this change in sound volume can be seen as a difference in the height of the 
waves. The height of the waves is called their amplitude. The larger the amplitude the louder the sound. 



Forcefully ;^£l 




Softly 



J Waves are high. 



fe: 



l=> 



MAAA/Wl \ Waves are low. 



The ■ 
wave 



The sound volume is determined by the amplitude (height of a wave) - the larger the amplitude 
the larger (louder) the volume. 



►#• 



<3 To 



neColororTimbre 



The "third basic element of 



sound"- 



SfHE & *--" , sa5£st:Br ( ss 



Ffute 



c=^ 





c=> 




Clarinet 



and square waves. ^ *own ,n the diagram below - sine waves, saw Itf 1 wales' 



[Reform 




Sine wave 
Saw-tooth wave 
Square wave 



Timbre 



Soft 

Bright 

Simple 



[ Instruments] 

Flute, whistle 
Violin, trumpet 
Clarinet, oboe 



H™°" 



iree waveforms 



^s~r - '- « - -■ *-. ^ . ree tete waveforms _ , ne __ _ tooth 



•©• 



J Basic Waves and Harmonics-Shaping the Timbre 



2! 



Now you would probably like to know how you can determine the shape of a wave (= timbre) in order to 
create the kind of sound you want. Have a look at the diagram on the lower left first. It illustrates the process 
of combining two sine waves to form a saw-tooth wave. B is the basic sine wave while C has twice the fre- 
quency of B (it is thus one octave higher in pitch) and only half its amplitude (volume). When B and C are 
combined, the result is the waveform A. A is still not a perfect saw-tooth wave, but it will infinitely approach 
a perfect saw-tooth shape if sine waves with triple (3x), quadruple (4x), quintuple (5x) etc. frequencies are 
added. If, on the other hand, only sine waves with odd numbered frequency multiples are added, the basic 
sine wave will gradually approach a square wave. 

In this manner, any waveform can be created by adding a number of sine waves to a basic sine wave. Waves 
such as C with frequencies that are integral multiples of the frequency of the basic wave (in our case B) are 
called harmonics. In other words, the waveform and thus the timbre are determined by the kind of harmonics 
added to the basic sine wave. Put differently, almost all sounds with their different timbres that reach our 
ears include a variety of different harmonics, and it is these harmonics which are responsible for the count- 
less characteristic timbres. 



V A = B + C 




■ Saw-tooth wave 

/VI/I 



■ Square wave 



Harmonic 
components 



Harmonic 
components 



IVr,; 



t : » ' ♦ s 



^Graphs such as the ones above which show the har- 
monic components of a wave form are calied "har- 
monic spectrums". 



• Music and noise 

Depending on its main kind of vibrations, sound is divided into "musical" and "noise". Sounds with 
regular vibrations (i.e. sounds in which components other than harmonics are very few) are considered 
to be musical, while sounds caused by complicated irregular vibrations (i.e. sounds with many compo- 
nents that are not harmonics) whose pitch can therefore not be measured are noise. 
Most of the sounds used in music are of course musical sounds, but various kinds of noise such as that 
produced by percussion instruments are also used to highten the musical effect. 

• Pure Tones 

Sounds which have no other components such as harmonics at ali and consist of only one simple fre- 
quency are called pure tone. The wave form of a pure tone is always a perfect sine wave. The timbre 
of a tuning fork or the telephone time tone are almost pure tones (perfect sine waves), but a truly 
pure tone does not exist in the natural world. Pure tones, therefore, can only be created artificially 
(e.g. electronically). 



I — (Remember ) - 



• Frequencies which are integral multiples of a basic wave with a certain frequency are called har- 
monics. 

• The timbre (waveform) is determined by the harmonic components. 



• VC 

This c; 

tO CTQ^ 

• VC 

This c 
by the 



>2?"-' 



3 Envelopes 



Other Factors Determining a Sound 

Besides the three basic elements of sound already explained, pitch, sound volume and timbre, there is another 
important factor which determines a sound. This is the variation of the sound over time. More precisely, 
it is the variation of each of the three elements over time from the beginning of the sound up to the point 
in time where it disappears completely. If a violin is played with a bow, for instance, the sound volume usually 
increases gradually while the timbre and pitch also change slightly. These changes over time are what deter- 
mines the characteristic timbre of a violin. On the other hand, if the sound of a piano were to continue with- 
out decaying, it would be very difficult to distinguish it from the the sound of a flute. These variations over 
time are called envelopes. Envelopes expressed graphically such as those in the diagrams below are called 
envelope curves. 



Envelope Curves of Various Instruments (Sound Volume) 

t 



Volume 




Volume 



Time 




Volume 



Flure 



Time 



Time 



The change of volume over time can also be called an envelope. 



I — Remember ) - 



The changes over time of pitch, volume and timbre are called envelopes. Envelopes are among the 
most important factors determining a sound. 



5) Basic Principles of Analog Synthesizer Structure 



When people talk about synthesizers, you will often hear expressions such as VCO and VCF. Many who 
have heard such difficult words will therefore find it difficult to approach synthesizers, believing they are 
too complicated. Actually, though, synthesizers are not that difficult to understand at all. 
Analog synthesizers in general consist of various blocks which correspond to the three major elements of 
sound and the envelopes explained above. 

• VCO (Voltage Controlled Oscillator) 

This circuit corresponds to determines the pitch of a sound by controlling voltage. This block is also used 
to create basic waveforms such as saw-tooth waves or square waves. 

• VCF (Voltage Controlled Filter) 

This circuit alters the timbre by accentuating or filtering out certain harmonics of the waveforms created 
by the VCO. The VCF might be called the most important part of an analog synthesizer. 



>23.« 



• VCA (Voluge Controlled Amplifier) 



Determines the 
pitch of the sound. 



Determines 
the timbre. 



Determines the volume 
of the sound. 




Oscillator used for modulation 



Determines the envelope curve of 



Sound s ignal 
Control signal 
Gate signal 



the waves 



• EG (Envelope Generator) 

Controls the change over timp nf tk = i 




Key On 



Time 



• LFO (Low Frequency Oscillator) 

As this term indicates the LFO k ^n „ •„ 

other Weeks to create such effects as vibrato^" ° Perating * '° W fre ^ enci «- 't can be 



used to control var 



ious 




The basic structure and functions of an analog synthesize, 

• VCO: Determines pitch (basic waveform) 

• VCF: Creates the timbre ^' determines the envelope 

LFO: Used for various effects 



EG: Determi 



• VCA: D 



etermines sound volume 



:: ^<^~^;%^™^ r ^ w 0rks . 0f course , Ihere are 



j 



Structure of the CZ-5000 



^forhlo^t 5 ??^ iS 3 digita ' J Sy ? the , sizer ' '* is as eas V t0 understand as any analog synthesizer since it con- 
s.sts of blocks that correspond closely to those making up an analog synthesizer. Anybody who knows the 

°ct?007Z7*St g - SyntheS! n r'" u eref ° re find k VCry e3Sy t0 Create ^ sounds *°y w - W th Se 
? h ™ e l 0ta (C beg,r \ ne / s w '" be able t0 en i°y »und synthesis almost immediately by simply mastering 
the contents of this "Sound Synthesis Seminar". "layering 

















<Analog Synthesizer> 

VCO ♦-► 

VCF «-♦ 

VCA ♦-► 
E G «-» 
LFO «-♦ 


<CZ-5000> 


r 


DCO 
(Pitch) 


■> 


DCW 
(Timbre) 


4 


DCA 
(Volume) 


4 


DCO 
DCW 


i 




t 




t 


t 


DCA 


DLFO 




DEG 


| 


DEG 


[_degJ 


DEG 












DLFO 



For more details on the structure of the CZ-5000, see Part 2, "CZ-5000 Sound Synthesis" (page 6